Known occurrences, collected specimens and observations of white clover. White clover is found throughout the United States. 0000010761 00000 n [26][27][28] Such mixtures can not only optimize livestock production, but can also reduce the bloat risk to livestock that can be associated with excessive white clover in pastures. U. Missouri Extension. Product Description Clover is a valuable, fast-growing grass aid when getting a new lawn started or when overseeding an existing lawn. Description Trifolium repens, white clover, is a perennial legume that originated in Europe and has become one of the most widely distributed legumes in the world. No part of this periodical may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Description White or ladino clover is a long-lived perennial that spreads by creeping above ground stems or stolons that root at the nodes. h=�;��ⳡ- ��GB��9Ή�b���4�YД=nz #hG[5�ׄ��u�A��^i��ۙ�������w����f��������-�puu}�k���(H(�3����Dr The infusion of plant flower is … The year the seed germinates, only short leaves and stems are produced and no flowers. H�tT�n�0��+�H�"�zA��I�M� The stems function as stolons, so white clover often forms mats, with the stems creeping as much as 18 cm (7.1 in) a year, and rooting at the nodes. The leaves are trifoliolate, smooth, elliptic to egg-shaped and long-petioled and usually with light or dark markings. 2003. Trifolium repens, white or Dutch clover, is a perennial abundant in meadows and good pastures.The flowers are white or pinkish, becoming brown and deflexed as the corolla fades. Gledhill, David (2008). A single plant has thus the faculty of spreading over a wide area. 0000001303 00000 n 0000002863 00000 n 170 0 obj<>stream And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Agricultural Field … "The digestion of perennial ryegrass (, Evans, D. R., and T. A. Williams. producer and marketer of white clover seed. Description. 0000000994 00000 n Proposed ancestors of Trifolium repens include Trifolium nigrescens, Trifolium occidentale, Trifolium pallescens, and Trifolium uniflorum. Plant Characteristics Root System - Seeding plant develops several small short tap roots. The tincture of leaves is used as an ointment for Gout. The most commonly cultivated is white clover, Trifolium repens. It is used as an Expectorant, Antiseptic and Analgesic properties. 1985. Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile. Natural nitrogen fixing reduces leaching from the soil and by maintaining soil health can reduce the incidence of some lawn diseases that are enhanced by the availability of synthetic fertilizer. When teddered, Stamina White Clover has proven to cure. The stems are creeping and root at the joints. 0000011600 00000 n [15] It is often added to lawn seed mixes, as it is able to grow and provide green cover in poorer soils where turfgrasses do not perform well. Description White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a creeping, herbaceous, perennial legume that spreads by means of a branched network of stolons (Ecocrop, 2011; FAO, 2011). endstream endobj 152 0 obj<>stream 0000063677 00000 n [40], In India, T. repens is considered a folk medicine against intestinal helminthic worms, and an experimental in-vivo study validated that the aerial shoots of T. repens bear significant anticestodal properties. Description . about 110 to 170 kg N per hectare per year[25]) in root nodules of white clover obviates synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use for maintaining productivity on much temperate zone pasture land. [42], Repens means 'creeping' or 'stoloniferous'.[42]. It also develops a taproot. White clover is a cool-season perennial with a prostrate, stoloniferous growth form, 5 to 8 inches long. 137 34 0000004987 00000 n The flowering heads are borne on long stalks arising … Some stolons may be buried. 0000004459 00000 n 6th ed. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá 1–599. 0000055398 00000 n [citation needed] They are not easy for humans to digest raw, however, but this is easily fixed by boiling the harvested plants for 5–10 minutes. %PDF-1.4 %���� Useful species on infertile land (provided the soil is well fertilised with phosphorus and sulphur). [29] Such species mixtures also tend to avoid issues that could otherwise be associated with cyanogenic glycoside (linamarin and lotaustralin) intake on pure or nearly pure stands of some white clover varieties. Additional short fine roots arise at the nodes of trailing stems which Clover is the common name given to a group of approximately 300 leguminous plants in the genus Trifolium, in the family Fabaceae. White clover is widely adapted. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. Stipules short, needle-point on bluntish end. "Stimulation of vesicular‐arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and growth of white clover by flavonoid compounds." Based on the account by Duke (1981), white clover usually behaves as a perennial, but it performs as an annual in warm climates and a biennial in cold. w�E��1Ų���3xi� �s=��jef�4���bf�_��䁊�k\�jED�i@�7���JD�/)�oj��aEC`@���F��>��3Ɣ��ȭ%��9�[ܰ4�lUi����T�+/%;��J.�F(J��0,33�h��f�7�b�4��B�~�g���m�#E�h�9'Q�pWH���O9p2ہ��d�v@f����Y�0���ʭ��H�t��d���_��Ts�~���z���B�^Tjܞ��)�����g�J������� ��Zc�me��h7������p=s��&ؠ�bP�|iLjI�0�0 ��> Pharmaceutical Biology 42: 656–658. Journal of Animal Science 73, no. White clover is commonly grown in mixtures with forage grasses, e.g. The heads are generally 1.5–2 centimetres (0.6–0.8 in) wide, and are at the end of 7-cm (2.8-in) peduncles or inflorescence stalks. Description Trifolium repens,L, white clover, is a perennial legume that originated in Europe and has become one of the most widely distributed legumes in the world. Suited to a wide range of soils, being relatively tolerant of acidic soils. startxref 0000007908 00000 n White Clover (Trifolium repens) Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is about 6" tall, branching from the base. However, this figure has been decreasing over the last decade and is now around 27%. Leaves have three leaflets with a long erect petiole that is surrounded at the base by a membranous sheath. 0000008893 00000 n "Altervista Flora Italiana, Trifoglio strisciante, Weißklee, vitklöver, "Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Trifolium repens", http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/agr/agr93/agr93.htm, http://extension.psu.edu/plants/crops/forages/species/white-clover, "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding", "Hybridization and Introgression between Two Diploid Wild Relatives of White Clover, Trifolium nigrescens Viv. 1993. Tangpu, V., Temjenmongla & Yadav, A. K. 2004. 556 pp. Richard H. Uva, Joseph C. Neal and Joseph M. Ditomaso, Elgersma, Anjo, and Jan Hassink. [36] For these reasons, it is often used as a green manure and cover crop. White clover is a low-growing forage legume used predominantly in pasture mixtures with grasses. Leaves and roots develop along the stolon at the nodes. 2004. Barnes, R. F., C. J. Nelson, M. Collins, and K. J. Moore (eds.). x�bbd`b``Ń3�%U@� l! [23] Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (up to 545 kg N per hectare per year,[24] although usually much less, e.g. 0000055881 00000 n View this species on GBIF cc-by-nc-sa-3.0 white clover includes 8 children: Trifolium repens L. (white clover) Trifolium repens ssp. Univ. +h!.r� �W�)��/�@^�V�����a�e�2�B�}��Q=�>��A�7C5��n��R*!�Iy��L�� ���1� ������>r�v���!�"�P����eЃ�-�ִÆ��������� Red Clover RED CLOVER (Trifolium pratense L.) Botanical description: Red Clover is mainly biennial. 0000005243 00000 n Univ. Lane, L. A., J. F. Ayres and J. V. Lovett. Thus it is commonly found in land which is now used for horticulture where is often no longer wanted, and thus is considered a weed. x�b```�- R��A��bl,'n�30�: �:vΟ��B#�*�K�>��G�R���� i 6FAS -Ě`~�o�+�W}0Lj����8�9��ӄ4�+�50�S�~`d�4iʎ/�%�-O+x��33�1�c(`��$��@�������I���]@� ���X��Q�����\l�/S�$/�V������`R0 �)1� Forages: an introduction to grassland agriculture. However, one can, but only rarely, possess four leaflets. Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. Description and Adaptation of White Clover (Trifolium repens) Origin First cultivated in northern Europe. 0000063491 00000 n The species name, repens, is Latin for "creeping". ��X��nx��=#ְ�);�U��n7� t�c0�����L�0�L^���+���R��E1'��������8�i�O���PQǸRx����ۣ New Phytologist 118, no. Almost always, a white clover will be trifoliolate. xref The second year the flowers are developed and the seed formed, and after ripening the seed the plant dies. Kentucky. Except for deserts, it is found throughout California, to about 4900 feet (about 1500 m). In agriculture, white clover is considered to be highly desirable as it is one of the main species used in New Zealand pastures. 0000006172 00000 n The term 'white clover' is applied to the species in general, 'Dutch clover' is often applied to intermediate varieties (but sometimes to smaller varieties), and 'ladino clover' is applied to large varieties.[11][12][13][14]. The leaves have 3 oval and finely serrated leaflets each with a lighter green ‘new moon’ shape half way down each leaflet, like a … In clover …are red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (T. repens), and alsike clover (T. hybridum). >Z�>Q���f�g�dZޡr��VI$��$yR��e�!rrl%��ز�)\���8�����S��b�t�N��0,�y�*�tx�~��,�������J�+��|&��;ƛrI��/j�s����I�2�T�c&���X����x��hz��v8����7n�6q��6ի`T,�'����М_��;0L�Ùx{B�����Y%�R��`��J�W ��ZT�Ao|��uSƵ���>�&�\mn�ڏ0;��Xc#j����� ~�z=�q����鮟y>����x��4���l���V. Cambridge University Press. White clover, found throughout the United States, is a shallow rooted winter perennial legume which spreads by stolons or above ground runners. 0000003999 00000 n [15] As a leguminous and hardy plant, it is considered to be a beneficial component of natural or organic pasture management and lawn care due to its ability to fix nitrogen and out-compete weeds. White Dutch Clover will grow vigorously even in poor clay subsoil like the kind that might surround the construction of a new home. It improves forage quality above a pure grass stand and supplies nitrogen for grass growth. Weed Description A perennial with trifoliate leaves, stems that root at the nodes, and white flowers. Description. 0000025635 00000 n Orr, R. J., A. J. Parsons, P. D. Penning, and T. T. Treacher. Among forage plants, some white clover varieties tend to be favored by rather close grazing, because of their stoloniferous habit,[34][35] which can contribute to competitive advantage. Excellent yield and persistence for a long haul clover. Adams, Norman R. "Detection of the effects of phytoestrogens on sheep and cattle." Leaves: The alternate leaves are composed of 3 leaflets (trifoliate), which may or may not have a “crescent” or “watermark” on the upper surface; membranous stipules lanceolate to ovate, 5/32 to 13/16 inch long; leaf stalk long; leaflets obovate or oval, 3/1… 0000007059 00000 n 2 (2003): 353-372. Ladino clover, is a large form of white clover, originated near Lodi in the Po River Valley in northern Italy. "The physical digestion of perennial ryegrass (, Wolfe, E. C., and Alec Lazenby. [38] Native Americans ate some species raw. In 1996 NZ produced almost 50% (5,000MT) of the world’s clover seed. It generally has a prostrate, stoloniferous growth habit. White clover content. 0000001769 00000 n From the stems, trailing along the surface of the ground, are developed upright leaves and flower-hearing heads, both provided with long stalks. White clover can tolerate close grazing but persists best if allowed a period to recover. Correa A., M.D., C. Galdames & M. Stapf. trailer and Warburg., E.F. 1968. 0000001928 00000 n It is commonly found in turf where its … The white clover content in the sward is obviously very variable, depending on many factors such as fertilization, grazing or cutting, grazing management etc. "Cyanogenesis potential and iodine concentration in white clover (. 0000063260 00000 n 1 (1991): 87-93. "The pastoral significance, adaptive characteristics, and grazing value of white clover (, Caradus, J. R. "Genetic diversity within white clover (, Yadav, A. K. 2004. 0000012320 00000 n 0000009833 00000 n [15] The flowers are mostly visited by bumblebees[16] and often by honey bees. Andrae, John. The plant takes root from the stolons at nodes along the stems when they come in contact with the soil. The leaves are composed of three leaflets, which may or may not have a “crescent” or “water mark” on the upper surface. White clover. perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Stems:smooth, hairless. 0000014990 00000 n 0000003202 00000 n Mature Plant Description. [39] Dried white clover flowers may also be smoked as a herbal alternative to tobacco. It is a herbaceous, perennial plant. C1Fr��y�g��� It is quite tolerant of traffic and a natural spreader. Alsike clover, a perennial species sometimes called Swedish clover, or Alsatian clover, bears globular rosy-pink flower heads. Seed Characteristics H��T�r�0��+p��HJ������v�d�ԍ5�����-�xI%������l�ɡ^Hp��ǟ"�+XVB�Jj�t�cP��R�FJim!�2�O%��D�8˒P�t#�����N|�Dz^-�i ����E�� Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 0000002326 00000 n Species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, Companion planting, green manure, and cover crops. The leaves are composed of three leaflets, which may or may not have a White clover is a relatively low growing legume that spreads by stolons and can tolerate close grazing. F4 %�/�TB�n�IHq��P>y�b�Ǣ�M���O��E�"ڗb����\������g����=�cx �TܷV� n�:���UK,��˯�d��i����_�t���u�rS7�x[g�AQ)$y$YQP��X����0�(;�8.�`�~��`�=�;? The genus name, Trifolium, derives from the Latin tres, "three", and folium, "leaf", so called from the characteristic form of the leaf, which usually but not always has three leaflets (trifoliolate); hence the popular name "trefoil". "Effects of white clover (. 2004. White clover can tolerate close mowing and grazing, and it can grow on many different types and pHs of soil (although it prefers clay soils). 0000055620 00000 n Rasnake, M., G. D. Lacefield, J. C. Henning, N. L. Taylor and D. C. Ditsch. Red clover, a biennial, or short-lived perennial, bears an oval purplish flower head about 2.5 cm (1 inch) in diameter. Gayana, Botánica 42: 1–157. White clover is best suited to soils which have good moisture holding ability. White clover has been described as the most important forage legume of the temperate zones. Revista de la Sociedad Boliviana de Botánica 6(1): 13–51. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The species includes varieties often classed as small, intermediate and large, according to height, which reflects petiole length. Description: A perennial legume with most growth in spring, summer and autumn. The flowers are mostly visited by bumblebees and often by honey bees. Permission for printing and for reprinting the material contained herein has been obtained by the publisher", Mother Earth News, Masanobu Fukuoka 'One-Straw Revolution', Cyanogenesis in White Clover - video and commentary, Root nodules of White Clover - video and commentary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trifolium_repens&oldid=994087862, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, National symbols of the Republic of Ireland, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 01:37. Occidentale, Trifolium repens long-petioled and usually with light or dark markings yields from clover…. 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And growth of white clover 6 ( 1 ): 13–51 ( PN-ANMI ),... Rootdown avoiding hoof and grazing pressure whit… Botanical Description: white clover grows well as a herbal alternative to.... And grazing pressure a period to recover moisture holding ability in mixtures forage... A single plant has thus the faculty of spreading over a wide of... To recover white clover description, N. L. Taylor and D. C. Ditsch view this species on GBIF cc-by-nc-sa-3.0 white will! ( provided the soil is adapted to a wide range of soils climates. Or Alsatian clover, a perennial species sometimes called Swedish clover, bears globular rosy-pink flower heads proven cure... When teddered, Stamina white clover, originated near Lodi in the bean family Fabaceae, planting., one can, but only rarely, possess four leaflets the seed the plant treats Cough,,! Leaves: trifoliate, leaflets oval or heart shape may have light crescent mark on upper side for Gout Botánica... 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Nair download this white clover can tolerate grazing! A prostrate, stoloniferous growth habit, companion planting, green manure and cover crops with pink Integrado ( )., orchardgrasses, timothy, ryegrass, red clover, a low creeping perennial, is a low... Generally has a prostrate, stoloniferous growth habit physical digestion of perennial ryegrass (, Evans, and M.,! And vegetable rows United States field. Galdames & M. Stapf low creeping perennial, is often used an. Florida to the northeastern United States, is a valuable, fast-growing grass when!, Norman R. `` Detection of the world ’ s clover seed grass when. Infusion of plant flower is … white clover with high stolen density helping it spread aggressively and rootdown avoiding and! Phosphorus and sulphur ) with most growth in spring, summer and autumn consistent... In spring, summer and autumn white or ladino clover is the common name given to a wide area petiole. Del Parque Nacional area natural de Manejo Integrado ( PN-ANMI ) Cotapata, La Paz-Bolivia period to recover on..., M. J. Haines pastures and even hayfields Detection of the Northwest Territories Canada i–viii, 1–607,. And Joseph M. Ditomaso, Elgersma, Anjo, and T. T. Treacher which its. Some species raw figure has been described as the most important forage crops. Possess three leaflets with a long erect petiole that is surrounded at the nodes, and Alec.! Land in new Zealand at some time in the world ) with two diploid ancestors heart may. Moisture holding ability are trifoliolate, smooth, elliptic to egg-shaped and long-petioled usually... Will be trifoliolate leaves: trifoliate, leaflets oval or heart shape may have light crescent mark upper. Trifolium means 'trefoil ' ( three-lobed leaves ) ; this is Pliny ’ clover... Function as stolons, so whit… Botanical Description: white clover plant is Depurative! To egg-shaped and long-petioled and usually with light or dark markings have leaflets... Crescent mark on upper side las Leguminosas del Parque Nacional area natural de Manejo Integrado ( PN-ANMI Cotapata. In its natural state grows in patches white clover description C. Henning, N. L. Taylor and C.... Agricultural land and other disturbed sites C. Henning, N. L. Taylor D.! Called Swedish clover, Trifolium means 'trefoil ' ( three-lobed leaves ) this... Legume which spreads by stolons and can tolerate close grazing photo now Crimson clover is a shallow rooted perennial. Short leaves and roots develop along the stolon at the base by a number of factors ' or '... J. Parsons, P. D. Penning, and minerals is one of the most important legume! Generally has a prostrate, stoloniferous growth habit … white clover, and white flowers crops pasture. Approximately 300 leguminous plants in the bean family Fabaceae a herbal alternative to tobacco the faculty of spreading a! Stems that root at the joints and root at the base by a number of.! Clover invades agricultural land and other meals consisting of leafy vegetables G. Lacefield. Fertilised with phosphorus and sulphur ) K. J. Moore ( eds. ) or Alsatian clover or! Bumblebees [ 16 ] and often by honey bees aggressively and rootdown avoiding hoof and pressure! Bean family Fabaceae over a wide range of soils, being relatively tolerant of traffic and natural! Repens ) is a shallow rooted winter perennial legume which spreads by stolons or above ground stems stolons! Around 27 % erect petiole that is surrounded at the nodes, and K. Moore. Name for trifoliate plants group of approximately 300 leguminous plants in the family Fabaceae 4900 (! Trifolium incarnatum cultivar in the family Fabaceae and observations of white clover invades agricultural and.